To determine whether self-efficacy longitudinally predicts 2 types of perceived cognitive impairment (PCI) in multiple sclerosis (MS): general cognitive functioning and executive functioning; and secondarily to assess whether self-efficacy mediates the relationships between depression, fatigue, and PCI.
Longitudinal analysis of self-report survey data collected over 3 years. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the relationship between self-efficacy and PCI, adjusting for depression and fatigue. Additional analyses tested self-efficacy as a mediator between depression, fatigue, and PCI.
Community-dwelling individuals with MS (N=233; age range, 22–83y) were recruited from a larger longitudinal survey study of individuals with MS (N=562).
Main Outcome Measures
Primary outcome measures were the Applied Cognition–General Concerns and the Applied Cognition–Executive Function domains of the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (NeuroQoL) measures.
Self-efficacy was significantly correlated with PCI at baseline ( r=.40–.53) and 3 years later ( r=.36–.44). In multivariate regression analyses, self-efficacy was a significant longitudinal predictor of PCI, both for general cognitive functioning (β=.20, P<.01) and executive functioning (β=.16, P<.05). Self-efficacy partially mediated the relationships between depression, fatigue, and PCI.
Self-efficacy may influence how individuals with MS perceive their cognitive functioning over time. Interventions that target self-efficacy, particularly early in the disease course, may lead to improvements in PCI, as well as improvements in fatigue and depression.
Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96(5), 913–919.
Author: Hughes, A. J., Beier, M., Hartoonian, N., Turner, A. P., Amtmann, D., & Ehde, D. M. (2015).http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2015.01.008